A Review of the Roots of Ecological Engineering and its Principles
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Department of Biology, York University, 4700 Keele St, Toronto, ON M3J 1P3, Canada
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Nargol Ghazian   

Department of Biology, York University, 4700 Keele St, Toronto, ON M3J 1P3, Canada
J. Ecol. Eng. 2024; 25(1):345-357
The wide definition of ecological engineering, a vast, multidisciplinary field, is the application and theoretical understanding of scientific and technical disciplines to protect natural habitats, as well as man-made and natural resources. The following two ideas are central themes in ecological engineering: 1) restoring substantially disturbed ecosystems as a result of anthropogenic activities and pollution, and 2) the synthesis of sustainable ecosystems that have ecological and human value by heavily relying on the self-organization capabilities of a system. Given the current paradigm of anthropogenic disturbances, the ideas and approaches of ecological engineering will be key in the creation of ecosystem resilience, eco-cities, and urban spaces. This review aims to discuss the roots of this discipline, draw comparisons to similar fields, including restoration ecology and environmental engineering, and offer a discourse of its basic principles with relevant examples from the literature. The aim is to bridge the gap between ideas such as energy signature, self-organization, and pre-adaptation to sustainable business and circular economy for a future that combines the natural environment with human society for the mutual benefit of both.
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