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Assessment of Fly Ash from Thermal Treatment of Sewage Sludge According to the Applicable Standards
 
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Warsaw University of Life Sciences, Institute of Civil Engineering, ul. Nowoursynowska 166, 02-787 Warsaw, Poland
CORRESPONDING AUTHOR
Gabriela Rutkowska   

Warsaw University of Life Sciences, Institute of Civil Engineering, ul. Nowoursynowska 166, 02-787 Warsaw, Poland
 
J. Ecol. Eng. 2023; 24(3):20–34
 
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ABSTRACT
The restrictions on carbon dioxide emissions introduced by the European Union encourage experimental work on new generation materials containing smaller amounts of clinker. Currently, silica fly ash from the combustion of hard coal is widely used in cement and concrete technology in Europe and in Poland. Their wide application is mainly determined by their chemical and phase composition, especially pozzolanic activity , their high fineness, similar to cement. The aim of the research was to assess the properties of fly ash from thermal treatment of sewage sludge in terms of use in concrete technology in relation to EN 450-1, ASTM-C618-03 and ASTM C379-65T. The obtained test results confirm that the tested material has a different physicochemical composition and does not meet the requirements related to the use of ash in the production of concrete. In addition, the research showed the possibility of producing ordinary concrete, modified with fly ash from thermal treatment of sewage sludge. The average compressive strength for concrete containing 15% of ash from Cracow was set at 48.1 MPa and 49.2 MPa after 28 and 56 days of maturation, for ash from Warsaw at 42.0 MPa and 45.1 MPa, and for ash from Łódź at 36.2 MPa and 36.2 MPa. The determined concentrations of heavy metals are below the maximum values to be met when discharging waste water into the ground or water, the leaching limits required for accepting inert waste for disposal and for substances particularly harmful to the aquatic environment. On this basis, it was found that the migration of heavy metals from concretes with ash addition to the aquatic environment is insignificant and should not be a significant problem.