Biochar as a Cadmium Scavenger in the Aquatic Environment Remediation: Date Seeds as Raw Material
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Prince Faisal Center for Dead Sea, Environmental and Energy Research, Mutah University, PO Box 3, Karak, 61710, Jordan
Amjad Asri Al-Tarawneh   

Prince Faisal Center for Dead Sea, Environmental and Energy Research, Mutah University, PO Box 3, Karak, 61710, Jordan
Publication date: 2022-03-01
J. Ecol. Eng. 2022; 23(3):270–280
It was found that date seeds are suitable for biochar production due to their low moisture content 8.92 %, low ash yield 1.05%, and high organic matter content 78.3%. The biochar was produced by pyrolysis at 350, 450 and 550oC. The effect of pyrolysis temperature on the physicochemical characteristics of biochar was investigated. It was found that the porosity, water holding capacity, ash content, pH, organic matter, fixed carbon, and the elemental content of Na, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, P, Zn, Ba, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Ti, and V were increased along with pyrolysis temperature. Meanwhile, the biochar yield, bulk density, and the total content of N and S were decreased. The biochar was tested as a sustainable adsorbent to investigate the adsorption of Cd from contaminated water. The adsorption isotherms of Cd on biochar were determined based on Langmuir equation. The maximum adsorption of Cd at 25oC and pH 7 were 667, 714, and 833 mg/Kg for the biochars produced at 350, 450, and 550oC, respectively. On the basis of the physicochemical characteristics of the biochar and the findings from Langmuir equation that showed the biochar produced at 550oC has the highest adsorption capacity for Cd, the desorption/adsorption experiment was carried out using the biochar produced at 550oC. The adsorption of Cd by biochar was directly proportional to the Cd concentrations. It was increased from 0.009 mmol/0.5g at 0.01 mmol Cd to 0.12 mmol/0.5g at 0.2 mmol Cd concentration. The desorption of Cd from biochar was increased proportionally to cadmium concentrations from 0.01 to 0.05 mmol and became constant above 0.05 mmol, regardless of the increment of cadmium concentrations. High retention potential for the cadmium that adsorbed within the biochar was proven in this study with desorption/adsorption percentage of 16%. These findings provide a successful example of date seeds converting into the sustainable adsorbent for Cd removal from aquatic environment to achieve the conception of eco-friendly production, which should be studied further.