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Coastal Water Properties and Hydrodynamic Processes in the Malacca Strait: Case Study Northeastern Coast of Sumatra, Indonesia
 
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1
Department of Marine Science and Technology, Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Science, IPB University, Jl. Agatis, Dramaga, Bogor, 16680, Indonesia
2
Department of Biology, Faculty of Mathematic and Natural Sciences, University of Sumatera Utara. Jl. Abdul Hakim No.1, Medan, 20155, Indonesia
3
Research Center for Oceanography, Indonesian Institute of Sciences, Jl. Pasir Putih 1, Jakarta Utara, DKI Jakarta, 14430, Indonesia
4
Research Center for Oceanography, Earth Sciences Research Organization, National Research and Innovation Agency, Jl. Pasir Putih 1, Jakarta Utara, DKI Jakarta, 14430, Indonesia
CORRESPONDING AUTHOR
Alan Frendy Koropitan   

Department of Marine Science and Technology, Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Science, IPB University, Jl. Agatis, Dramaga, Bogor, 16680, Indonesia
Publication date: 2021-12-02
 
J. Ecol. Eng. 2021; 22(11):16–29
 
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ABSTRACT
Dynamic processes in the coastal waters play an important role in regulating marine pollution distribution caused by riverine inputs and are relevant for coastal management. Here we investigate the coastal water properties from field measurements and modeling hydrodynamic processes in the northeastern coast of Sumatra. The present study found that the river discharges affect a low salinity of 28-29 PSU in the surface waters along near the coastal line. The river discharge might influence by strong La Niña with high rainfall in December 2010. However, we suggest that the effect of tidal mixing is stronger than the freshwater discharges, resulted in vertically well-mixed coastal waters in the region. The observed tidal range of 200 cm indicates a strong tidal mixing in the waters. The tidal elevation contributes more than 70% of the total measured sea elevation. The tidal current signal is also dominant (77%), in which the flow pattern simulations show no significant differences among tide and wind-tide driven currents.