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Evaluation of Environmental Performance of Chrome-Free Tanning Techniques of Paiche Skins (Arapaima gigas)
 
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1
Faculty of Environmental Engineering of the National University of Engineering (UNI), Túpac Amaru Ave. 210, 15333, Lima, Peru
2
Productive Innovation and Technological Transfer Center of Leather, Footwear and Related Industries (CITEccal Lima), Technological Institute of Production (ITP), Caquetá Ave. 1300, Rimac, 15094, Lima, Peru
CORRESPONDING AUTHOR
Liliana Marrufo Saldaña   

Productive Innovation and Technological Transfer Center of Leather, Footwear and Related Industries (CITEccal Lima), Technological Institute of Production (ITP), Caquetá Ave. 1300, Rimac, 15094, Lima, Peru
 
 
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ABSTRACT
The leather production from paiche skins (Arapaima gigas) has recently grown in Peru, as this allows to add value and earnings from this Amazonian aquaculture waste. The development of this process requires that the tanning techniques could preserve environment as these are meant to take place in Amazonian zones. The present study evaluated the environmental performance of two chrome-free tanning techniques of paiche skins compared with traditional chrome tanning technique, developed at pilot scale by CITEccal Lima. The evaluation was carried out using environmental performance indicators (EPI), analyzed and compared using the Grey Clustering method, identifying coefficients (σ) respecting to the stablished classes in the study (λ1: Good, λ2: Regular, λ3: Deficient). As result, the two chrome-free tanning techniques shown a better environmental performance than the traditional chrome tanning technique (σ: 0.54, class λ2). The optimized tanning technique applying phenolic compounds had the best environmental performance (σ: 0.98, class λ1), and its values for each environmental performance indicator per 1000 kg of initial processed paiche skin were: 30.0 m3 for water consumption, 815.0 kg of chemical products applied, 2022.7 kWh for energy consumption, 105.5 kg of solid wastes; and from wastewater characterization: 2780.9 mg/L for BOD, 11682.9 mg/L for COD and non-detectable chromium. Based on these results, its transfer is recommended, including a wastewater treatment system and environmental management measures implementation.