Geological and Geomorphological Factors of Natural Hazards in Ukrainian Carpathians
Olena Ivanik 1  
,  
Viktor Shevchuk 1  
,  
Dmytro Kravchenko 1  
,  
Vitalii Yanchenko 1  
,  
Serge Shpyrko 1  
,  
 
 
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Institute of Geology, Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv, 90 Vasylkivska str., 03022, Kyiv, Ukraine
CORRESPONDING AUTHOR
Olena Ivanik   

Institute of Geology, Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv, 90 Vasylkivska str., 03022, Kyiv, Ukraine
Publish date: 2019-04-01
 
J. Ecol. Eng. 2019; 20(4):177–186
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ABSTRACT
The consideration is given to geological and geomorphological factors of natural hazards in the Ukrainian Carpathians. Principal impact of rock lithology, geomorphological structure, underwater regime and seismic processes on the erosion, gravitational and water-gravitational processes formation is demonstrated. The research confirmed a special role of the tectonic factor and the presence of weak zones in the development of natural hazards. Weak zones are characterized by fracturing, brecciation, bedding of flysch deposits and contrast in permeability. Strength properties of rocks decrease drastically within such zones, and large-scale landslide formation processes occur, especially in case of subparallel location of zones relative to river valleys and slopes. The factors of hazardous geological processes have been defined and classified due to GIS analysis and developed geological model. A conceptual model of landslide hazards in the area of Carpathian Mountains is developed. Weight coefficients of potentially landslide prone factors are determined from onsite observations and archive data. An integral spatial map of landslide susceptibility is proposed. The results of this research are the base of geological environment modeling for the assessment of hazardous geological processes impact on the functioning of infrastructure objects.