Introduction to Precipitation Runoff Process and Soil Erosion Risk Analysis in a Specific Area of Interest to Design Control Measures
Elena Aydin 1  
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Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra, Department of Biometeorology and Hydrology, Hospodárska 7, Nitra, Slovak Republic
CORRESPONDING AUTHOR
Elena Aydin   

Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra, Department of Biometeorology and Hydrology, Hospodárska 7, 94976 Nitra, Slovak Republic
Publish date: 2019-02-01
 
J. Ecol. Eng. 2019; 20(2):44–50
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ABSTRACT
Knowledge of the spatial variability and hydrological behaviour of contributing areas to specific outlet is a fundamental input for developing appropriate water resource planning and management actions that takes part in various areas of human activities. The aim of this contribution is to present the possibilities to assess precipitation-runoff process and soil erosion risk in a specific area using the theoretical approaches with the simplest requirements for meteorological and surface runoff data. Considering the connectivity and behaviour of natural processes, the analysis of precipitation-runoff process and soil erosion risk is crucial prior the design of technical water management practices and technical erosion control measures in the landscape. Characteristics of design rain, e.g. the intensity, annual frequency and duration can be determined using practical tools or according to analysis of the cost and damages related to specific technical measure. The intensity of design rain can be estimated according to the long-term meteorological observations and developed intensity-duration-frequency curves using region specific equations (Dub’s formula, Urcikan’s formula). For the design of water management, conservation (especially erosion) or other measures for ecological stabilization and protection of the area, it is important to determine in particular the following characteristics of surface runoff: beginning of surface runoff, design discharge from the contributing area, the depth of the surface runoff, volume of surface runoff. Estimating the soil erosion risk by water erosion can be done according to slope gradient or USLE calculation and subsequent comparison of estimated value with tolerable soil loss. Regardless of the location of specific areas, we have found that design parameters of water management and technical erosion control practices, facilities and measures, including their localization can be determined by applying and modifying existing theoretical and practical hydrological knowledge. We also found that this design cannot be executed without an analysis of the precipitation-runoff process and the erosion risk of this territory. In relation to climate change and changing rainfall patterns in all regions worldwide, further studies should be conducted to specify the regional characteristics of precipitation, soil and its usage.