Physicochemical Properties of Sea Water and Bittern in Indonesia: Quality Improvement and Potential Resources Utilization for Marine Environmental Sustainability
Mirna Apriani 1, 2  
,  
Wahyono Hadi 1
,  
 
 
More details
Hide details
1
Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember Surabaya, Kampus ITS Sukolilo, Surabaya 60111, Indonesia
2
Politeknik Perkapalan Negeri Surabaya, Kampus ITS Sukolilo, Surabaya 60111, Indonesia
Publish date: 2018-05-01
 
J. Ecol. Eng. 2018; 19(3):1–10
KEYWORDS:
TOPICS:
ABSTRACT:
The traditional salt production in Indonesia was investigated to report the preparation and processing of salt, determine the characteristics of sea water and bittern as well as explore the potential of bittern management with appropriate technology. Field study and comprehensive analysis were performed so as to better understand the salt making, providing valuable information for the proposal of targeted management strategies in salt quality improvement and wastewater recovery. The results show that Na+, Cl– and Ca2+ in East Java Province seawater were found greater than the majority of values found in the literature. The highest concentrations of Na+, Cl– and Ca2+ were measured in Camplong-Sampang District. The highest concentrations of Mg2+ and trace metals were recorded in Panceng-Gresik District. The trace metals found in sea water and bittern need particular concern to be removed without disposing of sea water minerals. The potential number of bittern in Indonesia promoted the development of the bittern management for magnesium recovery and achieving marine environment sustainability. High purified material recovery can be achieved by using crystallization technology.
CORRESPONDING AUTHOR:
Mirna Apriani   
Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember Surabaya, Kampus ITS Sukolilo, Surabaya 60111, Indonesia, Kampus ITS Sukolilo, 60111 Surabaya, Indonesia