Processing of Palm Mill Oil Effluent Using Photocatalytic: A Literature Review
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Department of Agroindustrial Technology, Bogor Agricultural University (IPB), Bogor 16680, Indonesia
Department of Agroindustrial Technology, University of Lambung Mangkurat, Banjarbaru 70714, Indonesia
Lya Agustina   

University of Lambung Mangkurat, Banjarbaru 70714 Indonesia
Publication date: 2021-12-02
J. Ecol. Eng. 2021; 22(11):43–52
The extraction of palm oil fruit (E. guineensis) is achieved by a combination of methods such as pressing, sterilizing, digesting, peeling, grading, purifying, and vacuum drying the extracted oil. This process requires excessive use of water and produces a large amount of wastewater with a high concentration of pollutants, called palm oil mill efluent (POME). This waste water is a high-viscosity liquid with a brown color and a temperature of 80-90 °C. It has a very low pH value, between 4.2-4.5, has a high chemical and biochemical oxygen demand, and is extremely toxic. POME treatment has adopted a variety of methods and technologies, including coagulation-flocculation, anaerobic-aerobic treatment and membrane technology. Biological treatment is mainly used to treat POME, and the POME treated through biological treatment is called palm oil mill secondary effluent (POMSE). Unfortunately, the treated wastewater still contains high concentrations of organic matter. The color of the effluent is still dark brown. The remaining pollutants from this biological process are generally difficult to degrade biologically, thus requiring suitable processing methods for its removal, so that it can be discharged to the environment safely or even reused orrecycled. One of the challenging processing methods is photocatalytic process. This method is able to utilize abundant resources in the form of sunlight, and is also effective to degrade a wide variety of recalcitrant organic pollutants in the wastewater. This paper presents the current research and development of photocatalytic degradation process for processing of palm oil mill secndary effluent. The review and analysis are focused on synthesis of photocatalyst and the photoreactor design. Based on the results of the literature review and analysis, some recommendations are formulated for future research for their application in advanced POMSE management so that it can be reused for various purposes.