Spatial Modeling of the Effects of Deflation Destruction of the Steppe Soils of Ukraine
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Kherson State Agricultural University, Ukraine, 73006, Kherson, Stritens'ka str. 23
Vitalii Pichura   

Kherson State Agricultural University, Ukraine, 73006, Kherson, Stritens'ka str. 23
Publication date: 2020-02-01
J. Ecol. Eng. 2020; 21(2):166–177
The decrease in agricultural efficiency is associated with the influence of wind erosion, the consequence of which is a decrease in soil fertility. Significant effects of wind erosion are typical of the arid and semi arid zones with a small amount of precipitation, high air temperature and degree of evaporation, reinforced by strong winds and low differentiation of plant protection. It has been proved that the intensity of effects of deflation processes depends on the physical and geographical conditions of the distribution of agricultural land, systematic soil protection activities and the availability of vegetation. It has been established that the acceleration of deflation processes occurs in territories with increased anthropogenic pressure, which leads to ecological disturbance of the natural balance of territorial ecosystems. In the course of the studies it has been found that the natural processes of wind erosion are significantly enhanced by the absence of a scientifically-based and ecological and land development system of agriculture, which leads to destruction of the soil cover, reduction of soil fertility, damage to agricultural crops and, as a result, economic damage. As a result of application of the GIS and ERS technologies, the empirical-statistical model of possible soil loss due to wind erosion in the territory of the Steppe zone of Ukraine, it has been found that as a result of deflation processes in the territory taken by naked fallow upon the absence of conditions for deflation resistance activities, the value of soil loss at the epicenter of dust storms can reach about 600 t / ha. Studies have proved the importance of the deflation resistant action of the vegetation cover, which tends to an increase in erosion dangerous (favorable) areas of agricultural land by 1.7 times, which reduces soil loss by 5.62 times. In accordance with the intensity of effects of deflation processes and the increase of soil losses, contour and land development deflation resistance activities with elements of soil protection agriculture have been proposed.