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Study of the Conditions for Accelerating the Composting Process when Adding Microbial Communities
 
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1
Odessa National Academy of Food Technologies, Kanatnaya Str. 112, Odessa, Ukraine
2
Lviv Polytechnic National University, Department of Ecology and Sustainable Nature Management, Stepana Bandera Str. 12, Lviv, Ukraine
CORRESPONDING AUTHOR
Valeriia Sokolova   

Odessa National Academy of Food Technologies, Kanatnaya str., 112, Odessa, Ukraine
Publication date: 2021-03-01
 
J. Ecol. Eng. 2021; 22(3):11–17
 
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ABSTRACT
The study of the composting process is a very urgent task. The rapid growth in food production leads to the formation of waste, which should be safely disposed of in a natural way – composting. Composting the vegetable component of food waste can significantly reduce the proportion of waste falling into landfills and utilize the food waste from the hotel and restaurant industry. Additional enrichment of the compost mixture of food waste with the «Baikal EM» microbiological additive accelerates the maturation process and enhances the efficiency of the finished compost. Such compost does not contain viable weed seeds or pathogenic microflora and can be used as a fertilizer. In contrast to the control, a sufficient level of germination index is observed for the studied samples and they are not phytotoxic. The finished compost can be used as a fertilizer in agriculture for growing crops. The results obtained indicate that the index of germination of radish seeds increases along with the duration of fermentation of the composted mixture. Communities of microorganisms contained in the «Baikal EM» additive accelerate the natural process of composting, taking an active part in the destruction of the components of the vegetable mixture. The pH value of the finished compost, both under thermophilic and mesophilic conditions, is close to neutral indicators. High values of CO2 emissions from reactors were recorded in the second week under thermophilic and for 3 weeks under mesophilic conditions. The finished compost that fermented under thermophilic and mesophilic conditions can be used as fertilizer, but considering that additional energy is required to create thermophilic conditions, it is advisable to compost the food waste mixture with the addition of the microbiological additive «Baikal EM» under mesophilic conditions.