Suitability of Carbon and Nitrogen Management Indices for the Evaluation of Soil Organic Matter Under Different Soil Management Practices in a Productive Vineyard
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Department of Soil Science, Faculty of Agrobiology and Food Resources, Slovak University of Agriculture, Tr. A. Hlinku 2, 949 76 Nitra, Slovakia
Department of Languages, Faculty of Economics and Management, Slovak University of Agriculture, Tr. A. Hlinku 2, 949 76 Nitra, Slovakia
Department of Soil Environment Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture and Biology, Warsaw University of Life Sciences – SGGW, Nowoursynowska Str. 159, building no. 37, 02-776 Warszawa, Poland
Publication date: 2021-07-06
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Vladimír Šimanský   

Slovak University of Agriculture
J. Ecol. Eng. 2021; 22(7):150-162
Soil organic matter (SOM) is considered to be the most important part of the soil. C and N and their forms are most often used to evaluate SOM. In the last decades, C indices have begun to be used to assess soil quality for C changes in SOM due to the different soil management. Since C cycle is closely related to N, there is an assumption that N indices will be sensitive to N changes in SOM under the different soil management. The objective of the study was to evaluate the extent of C and N indices on C and N changes in SOM (in Rendzic Leptosol) under the different soil management practices (1. G: grass and no fertilization - as control; 2. T: tillage; 3. T+FYM: tillage + farmyard manure; 4. G+NPK3: grass + NPK 125-50-185 kg ha-1; 5. G+NPK1: grass + NPK 100-30-120 kg ha−1) in a productive vineyard (Nitra-Dražovce; Slovakia) during the period of 13 years. The results showed that the soil organic carbon (SOC) was reduced by 26% compared to G because of intensive cultivation on one hand, but on the other hand, in T + FYM treatment no significant changes in SOC over the 13 years of the experiment were observed. A higher labile carbon (CL) content was in G+NPK3 then follows: G+NPK1 > G > T+FYM > T for topsoil. In topsoil, carbon lability increased after a higher level of mineral fertilization, while in subsoil after intensive cultivation. The values of CPI for topsoil decreased in the following order: G+NPK1 > T+FYM > G+NPK3 > T. Based on CMI values, intensive C changes in the SOM due to the soil management practices were observed in T treatment. The highest accumulation of carbon and decomposable organic matter occurred in G+NPK3. Incorporation of FYM, and both rates of NPK increased values of NMI by 45, 47 and 36% respectively compared to T for topsoil. The highest values of the NPI were detected because of farmyard manure application and mineral fertilization at a higher rate for topsoil and because of intensive cultivation, as well as plowing of FYM for subsoil.
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