The Ability of Mangrove Plant on Lead Phytoremediation at Wonorejo Estuary, Surabaya, Indonesia
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Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember, Keputih, Sukolilo, 60111 Surabaya, Indonesia
Uridna Marwah Lufthansa   

Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember, Keputih, Sukolilo, 60111 Surabaya, Indonesia
Publication date: 2021-06-06
J. Ecol. Eng. 2021; 22(6):253–268
Lead (Pb) is a heavy metal often discovered to be polluting the water areas. One of the efforts made to overcome the heavy metal pollution in estuaries was phytoremediation technique using mangroves. The Wonorejo River was one of the rivers that received industrial waste loads. There were various types of mangrove plant species at the estuary of the Wonorejo River. The location of this research was divided into 3 monitoring stations (A, B, C). Station A was directly adjacent to the estuary, as location C was farther away and very close to the sea. However, station B was located between location A and B. This study aimed to determine the ability of mangrove in remediating and illustrating the distribution of Pb, at the Wonorejo River estuary. Moreover, it also aimed to determine the values of Bioconcentration (BCF) and Translocation (TF) Factors in the ability of Avicennia alba, Avicennia marina, Sonneratia caseolaris, Avicennia lanata, and Rhizophora stylosa to accumulate Pb. The samples were the roots, stems, and leaves of mangroves, with the water and sediment at the Wonorejo estuary, as all solid materials were also extracted. The samples were analyzed for heavy metal concentration, using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS). The results showed that the highest average Pb concentration for waters and sediments was obtained at station C and A, with values of 0.069 mg/L and 4.22 mg/kg, respectively. It was further observed that the Pb concentration in the water was lower than in sediment, indicating that the metal was accumulated in the sediments. On the basis of the BCF value, the most effective mangrove involved in the accumulation of Pb was A. alba. The highest values of TF for both root to stems and to leaves in the accumulation of Pb was also discovered in A. lanata and A. alba mangroves, respectively. On the basis of the Pb distribution mapping, the concentration of the metal was shown to increased, as the research location moved further away from the estuary. Conclusively, each type of mangrove had different ability to accumulate and translocate Pb in its body, with the potential of using those plants as phytoremediaton agents for the metal.