Utilization of Calcined Gypsum in Water and Wastewater Treatment: Removal of Phenol
 
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Department of Chemical Engineering, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria
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Tafila Technical University, Department of Chemical Engineering, P.O. Box 179, 66110 Tafila, Jordan
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Tafila Technical University, Department of Chemistry, Tafila, Jordan
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Department of Green Chemistry, Lappeenranta University of Technology, Sammonkatu 12, FI-50130 Mikkeli, Finland
CORRESPONDING AUTHOR
Aiman Eid Al-Rawajfeh   

Tafila Technical University, Department of Chemical Engineering, P.O. Box 179, 66110 Tafila, Jordan
Publish date: 2019-07-01
 
J. Ecol. Eng. 2019; 20(7):1–10
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ABSTRACT
The release of phenol-containing effluents above the phenol permissible limit has triggered a lot of concern to the world due to their toxic nature. The adsorptive potential of gypsum on the removal of phenol has been investigated. The effect of gypsum loading (0.5 – 3 g), contact time (2.5 – 20 min) and solution temperature (298 to 318 K) on the removal of phenol by gypsum was studied at neutral pH. The thermodynamics of the adsorption process was also studied. The kinetic data were fitted into the pseudo-second-order, Elovich, and intraparticle diffusion models. The removal efficiency of phenol was increased with increasing mass of gypsum, contact time and temperature. The results of the thermodynamics study indicate that the adsorption process is spontaneous and endothermic in nature. The change in free energy (ΔG0) was found to increase with increasing temperature. The values of the estimated ΔG0suggest that the phenol adsorption on gypsum is a physical adsorption process. Also, the kinetic data fitted best into the pseudo-second-order than the other kinetic models. This study has proved that phenol can be used effectively for the reduction of phenol concentrations in water and wastewater.