Water Quality and Radionuclides Content Assessment of AL-Najaf Sea: Case Study
Haider M. Zwain 1, 2  
,   Kareem Radhi Almurshedi 1  
,   Mohammadtaghi Vakili 3  
,   Irvan Dahlan 4, 5  
,   Ahmed Samir Naje 1  
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College of Water Recourses Engineering, Al-Qasim Green University, Al-Qasim Province, Babylon, Iraq
Department of Civil and Architectural Engineering, College of Engineering, Sultan Qaboos University, P.O. Box 33, Al‑Khodh, 123 Muscat, Oman
Green Intelligence Environmental School, Yangtze Normal University, Chongqing 408100, China
School of Chemical Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Engineering Campus, Seri Ampangan, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang, Malaysia
Solid Waste Management Cluster, Science and Engineering Research Centre, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Engineering Campus, Seri Ampangan, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang, Malaysia
Haider M. Zwain   

Al-Qasim Green University
Publication date: 2021-02-01
J. Ecol. Eng. 2021; 22(2):262–271
Al-Najaf state is witnessing an increased economic development and attracting more investments that require the development of new areas and exploring new water resources. This study evaluates the quality of 12 surface water samples and groundwater from 12 wells for irrigation according to salinity and sodicity hazards based on electrical conductivity (EC) and sodium adsorption ratio (SAR). In addition, the concentrations of radionuclides which includes Thorium (232Th), Uranium (238U), Potassium (40K) and Cesium (137Cs) were tested in four soil samples in the study area. It was found that the average values of pH, total hardness, Na, Ca, Mg, K, Cl, SO4, NO3 for groundwater and surface water were 8 and 6, 2287 and 4006 mg/L, 1140 and 1232 mg/L, 378 and 637 mg/L, 327 and 587 mg/L, 2 and 2 mg/L, 989 and 2007 mg/L, 1149 and 1325 mg/L, and 2 and 2 mg/L, respectively. From salinity and sodicity hazards analysis, the groundwater had EC of 5242 µS/cm and SAR of 61, whereas surface water had EC of 6253 µS/cm and SAR of 50. Furthermore, the radionuclides concentrations of 232Th, 238U, 40K and 137Cs in soil samples were found to be 11.02, 34.12, 544.45, and 1.6 Bq/kg, respectively. The radionuclides concentrations were within the worldwide baseline, expect for 40K. The study concluded that both water sources are classified as very high salinity and sodium water (class C4-S4), and it cannot be used for irrigation, only suitable for salt tolerant crops.