A HYDROPHYSICAL ANALYSIS OF URBAN SURFACE RUNOFF, CHANNEL CHARACTERISTICS, AND THE INCIDENCE OF FLOOD AND EROSION OVER THE CALABAR DRAINAGE AREA, NIGERIA.
 
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Kuban State Technological University, Moskovskaya 2, 350072 Krasnodar, Russia
CORRESPONDING AUTHOR
Innocent Akwazi Ugbong   

Kuban State Technological University, Krasnodar, Russia., Moskovskaya 2,, hostel 4, room 516, KubSTU, 350072 Krasnodar, Russia
Publish date: 2016-07-01
 
J. Ecol. Eng. 2016; 17(3):30–40
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Abstract: Hydro-physical processes operating in the Calabar drainage area were analyzed by estimating the volume of surface runoff carried in each basin and sub-basin, using field measurements of flow velocities in conjunction with the “Rational Method” mathematical model proposed by civil and environmental engineers. It was found that run-off flow is affected by at least three factors which either produce floods or erosion conditions. The factors include size of catchment areas, gradient and lengths of flow channels. The Multiple Regression statistic was used to test these relationships. The results showed a strong statistical correlation among these variables, as well as between these variables and flow characteristics. It was found that for all the basins, runoff volume increased with increasing surface area of the catchment; just as areas with lower elevations register higher flow volume accompanied by flooding; with a reversed condition in higher ground where higher velocities are found with resultant erosion conditions. Also channels with considerable lengths receive higher flows along their courses downstream, and thus produce floods. It was therefore, recommended that in addition to the six major drainage channels recommended for the area, each channel and each segment of a channel should be determined by its gradient, drainage area, length of flow channel.