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Ammonium-Assisted Intercalation of Java Bentonite as Effective of Cationic Dye Removal
 
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1
Graduate School, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Sriwijaya University, Palembang, 30139, Indonesia
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Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Sriwijaya University, Palembang, 30139, Indonesia
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Pharmaceutical Department, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Sriwijaya University, Palembang, 30139, Indonesia
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Department of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Sriwijaya University, Palembang, 30139, Indonesia
CORRESPONDING AUTHOR
Risfidian Mohadi   

Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Sriwijaya University, Palembang, 30139, Indonesia
 
J. Ecol. Eng. 2023; 24(2)
 
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ABSTRACT
Modification of Java bentonite assists by the multi-step intercalation of sodium and ammonium ions under low-temperature preparation. The adsorbent was examined to remove rhodamine B and methylene blue dyes in an aqueous solvent. The analysis of structural changes conducted by XRD analysis showed the peak shifting from 19.89° to 16.1° and specific peak spectra FTIR of 2846.93 cm-1 due to increase basal spacing from ammonium intercalation. The total capacities of NH-bentonite, Na-bentonite, and Natural Bentonite adsorption to rhodamine B were 192.308 mg/g, 136.936 mg/g, and 116.279 mg/g, respectively, under acidic conditions. Furthermore, the total capacities of NH-bentonite, Na-bentonite, and Natural Bentonite adsorption to methylene blue were 270.27 mg/g, 158.73 mg/g, and 136.986 mg/g, respectively, under alkaline conditions. The adsorption mechanism described that the rhodamine B and methylene blue removal occurred endothermically, was feasible, and adhered to the kinetics model of pseudo-second-order and Langmuir isotherm. It concluded that the modified Java Bentonite from multi-step intercalation is affordable and effective as wastewater treatment.