Assessment of the Health Risk Related to Air Pollution in Selected Polish Health Resorts
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Wroclaw University of Technology, Faculty of Environmental Engineering, Pl. Grunwaldzki 9, 50- 377 Wroclaw, Poland
inFAIR, ul. Puszczyka 10 m. 55, 02-785 Warsaw, Poland
Institute of Environmental Protection – National Research Institute, Integrated Environmental Monitoring Department, ul. Krucza 5/11d, 00-548 Warsaw, Poland
Wroclaw University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Architecture, Department of spatial planning and settlements processes, 50-317 Wroclaw, B. Prusa 53/55, Poland; Institute for Territorial Development, 50-527 Wroclaw, J. Wl. Dawida 1a, Poland
Chief Inspectorate of Environmental Protection, Voivodship Inspectorate for Environmental Protection in Wroclaw, Department of Inspection, ul. Józefa Chełmońskego 14, 51-630 Wrocław, Poland
Biuro Studiów i Pomiarów Proekologicznych EKOMETRIA Sp. z o.o., ul. Elbląska 66, 80-761 Gdańsk, Poland
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Wroclaw University of Technology, Faculty of Environmental Engineering, Pl. Grunwaldzki 9, 50- 377 Wroclaw, Poland
Publication date: 2019-11-01
J. Ecol. Eng. 2019; 20(10):132–145
The article discusses the tools used for air quality management in the health resorts in Poland including legal instruments, documents and activities at the regional and local level with an example of formal and legal activities, such as the so-called anti-smog resolution to limit the emission of air pollutants from the municipal and housing sectors and thus minimize the risk related to air pollution. The issue of pollution emission resulting from the spatial conditions, including spatial planning, was also indicated. The analysis of the results pertaining to the PM10 measurements from 2017-2018 available for the resorts in Lower Silesia with reference to selected resorts in other regions of Poland and the health risk assessment according to the concentration-response functions for the PM-based on long- and short-term relative risk estimates derived from epidemiological studies were conducted. The exposure assessment was based on the available mathematical modelling results for the PM10 and PM2.5 concentration distributions, which was performed using the CALPUFF model for 2017. In the case of average risk indicators, the obtained values indicated that the values (for all the stays and areas of all zones (total A, B and C) peaked for the Cieplice Śląskie-Zdrój health resort (over 1.1% per annum) and were lowest for Czerniawa and Świeradów-Zdrój (about 0.7%). The highest relative risk indicators in 2017 were observed for cardiovascular diseases for the first two stays in January / February (for the Cieplice Śląskie-Zdrój health resort – over 5%) and for both December stays (over 2.5%). In other health resorts, the risk indicators were significantly lower. The lowest health risk indicators were observed in July, regardless of the location of the health resort and the analysed health effect (rarely exceeding 0.3%). The scale of risk in this case was much higher compared to the short-term risk.