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Bee Pollen as a Functional Product – Chemical Constituents and Nutritional Properties
 
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College of Science and Humanities - Huraymila, Imam Mohammed Ibn Saud Islamic University (IM SIU), P.O. Box 5701, Riyadh 11432, Saudi Arabia
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Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, Al-Azhar University, Cairo, 11884, Egypt
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Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Agriculture, Al-Azhar University, Cairo, 11884, Egypt
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Department of Food Science and Technology, Faculty of Agriculture, Al-Azhar University, Cairo 11884, Egypt
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Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Al-Azhar University, Cairo 11884, Egypt
CORRESPONDING AUTHOR
Ashraf E. Hamdy   

Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Al-Azhar University, Cairo 11884, Egypt
 
J. Ecol. Eng. 2023; 24(2)
 
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ABSTRACT
Nutritional Supplements play a role in promoting human protein synthesis, fitness recovery, and mental health protection. Pollen is considered a natural product with excellent nutritional value. The use of bee-gathered pollen as a nutritional supplement is now widespread around the world, and it is appreciated for its healing qualities. However, the nutritional value of pollen varies greatly depending on the floral species and the geographic origins. It was found that clover pollen had the highest protein content (31.4 g/100gDM), while the lowest content was observed in maize pollen (21.3%). Eucalyptus pollen had the highest lipid content of 9.49g/100 g DM, while clover pollen had the lowest content (7.46g/100g). Phytochemical analysis showed that eucalyptus pollen occupied the highest total antioxidant activity (67.02%), followed by clover (58.25%) then maize (52.18%), whereas clover pollen had the highest phenolic content (1165mg GAE/100gm), compared with the other pollen varieties (949.4 to 1073mgGAE/100gm). The contents of branched-chain amino acids were 29, 33.3, and 38.4 mg/g for maize, eucalyptus, and clover respectively, representing 17.87, 18,.44, and 16.53 % of total amino acids. The contents of total essential amino acids (EAAs) were 61.8, 73.0, and 83.5mg/g for maize, eucalyptus, and clover pollen, respectively. Only eucalyptus pollen ultimately met the minimum requirements of EAAs for adults. While the other two types of pollen contained at least 3-4 limiting essential amino acids, i.e., leucine, lysine, phenylalanine, and valine. In conclusion, pollen is a good, affordable source of nutrients that can be utilized as beneficial dietary supplements for human health.