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Changes in Essential Soil Nutrients and Soil Disturbance Directly Affected Soil Microbial Community Structure: A Metagenomic Approach
 
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Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Brawijaya University, Jl. Veteran, Malang, East Java, Indonesia 65145
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Department of Biology, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Brawijaya University, Jl. Veteran, Malang, East Java, Indonesia 65145
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Department of Soil Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Brawijaya University, Jl. Veteran, Malang, East Java, Indonesia 65145
CORRESPONDING AUTHOR
Adam Wiryawan   

Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Brawijaya University, Jl. Veteran, Malang, East Java, Indonesia 65145
Publication date: 2022-07-01
 
J. Ecol. Eng. 2022; 23(7):238–245
 
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ABSTRACT
Soil environment, both biotic (e.g., microbial community) and abiotic (e.g., nutrients and water availability) factors determine soil fertility and health and are directly affected by soil management systems. However, only limited studies evaluate the combined effect of nutrients availability and soil disturbance on the soil bacteria community structure, especially in conventional agricultural practices, on the forests converted to agricultural land. This study aimed to provide a viewpoint of the effect of different soil management systems, i.e., forest soil (natural process) and tilled land, on soil bacteria community structure on forest converted to agricultural land, according to a metagenomics approach. Moreover, each land use was sampled to identify the bacterial community using 16S gene as a biomarker. The sequencing was performed using MinION (Oxford Nanopore Technologies) to read the DNA sequence from each soil sample. Principle Component Analysis (PCA) was performed to comprehend the relationship between availability of nutrients and bacterial diversity. The results revealed that the concentrations of soil micronutrients, such as iron, zinc, and magnesium, were significantly higher in forest soil than in tilled land. According to diversity indices, soil bacteria were more diverse in forest soil than in tilled land. Forest soil had more distinctive taxa than tilled land. Several species comprised the most abundant taxa, such as Candidatus-Koribacter versatilis, Candidatus-Solibacter usiatus, Rhodoplanes sp., Luteitalea pratensis, and Betaproteobacteria bacterium, were more scarce in tilled land. On the distinctive taxa in each soil sample, Anseongella ginsenosidimutans and Janthinobacterium sp. were the most abundant species in forest and tilled land, respectively. According to PCA analysis, soil management system affected the soil micro-and macronutrients also microbial community structure between forest and tilled land. In conclusion, soil management influences the essential nutrient content and bacterial community structure of soil. Better management should be adopted to maintain soil quality near forest soil.