Environmental Monitoring of the Sustainability and Productivity of the Agroecosystem of Oilseeds in South-East Kazakhstan
Naziya Suleimenova 1  
,   Gulnar Orynbasarova 1  
,   Mariya Suleimenova 2  
,   Alikhan Bozhbanov 2  
,   Svetlana Yerekeyeva 1  
National Agrarian University, Abay ave., 8, Almaty, 050010, Kazakhstan
Almaty Technological University, Tole bi str., 100, Almaty, 050012, Kazakhstan
Gulnar Orynbasarova   

Kazakh National Agrarian University
Data publikacji: 06-07-2021
J. Ecol. Eng. 2021; 22(7):89–99
The purpose of the study described in this paper is aimed at identifying the environmental situation of the agroecosystem and studying the impact of resource-saving technology methods for the cultivation of oilseed rapeseed, ensuring sustainability and productivity of the agroecosystem during environmental monitoring. The object of the study was spring rapeseed of the Maily variety. Experimental studies were carried out using generally accepted classical techniques, such as experiment and observation, in the form of a multifactorial field experiment. A two-factor field experiment was laid out by the split plots method and based on the methodology for conducting field experiments with oilseeds. The results of the study were obtained using the methods of a soil-protective agriculture system based on the principles of soil protection technology. The studied minimal tillage provides a reduction in the amount of mechanical impact on the soil, restoration and preservation of soil fertility, improvement of moisture supply by leaving the plant stubble and scattering chopped straw after harvesting the previous crop, and replacing deep moldboard tillage with shallow flat-cut tillage. Based on the obtained results of the study, it was proved that the replacement of energy-intensive moldboard tillage with shallow flat-cut tillage (mini-till), ensuring the rational use of soil resources and resource-energy conservation, was feasible. The reconstructed parameters of agrophysical factors of soil fertility were determined, such as density, aggregate composition, and the structure and water resistance of soil aggregates, which ensured the sustainability of the environmental situation of the agroecosystem. It has been established that soil protection methods of resource-saving rapeseed cultivation technology mitigate the risk and optimize the conditions for the growth and development of crops, where productivity increases to 21.3%, and also provide 29.3 thousand tenges/ha of additional income from each hectare with an increase in the profitability of rapeseed cultivation to 97% and 108% in the conditions of South-East Kazakhstan.