PL EN
Evaluation of Soil Pollution Levels in Al-Qadisiyah Governorate, Iraq Using Contamination Index and GIS
 
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1
Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering & Built Environment, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia
2
Civil Engineering Department, College of Engineering, University of Al-Qadisiyah, Al-Qadisiyah, Iraq
3
Earth Observation Centre, Institute of Climate Change, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM, Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia
CORRESPONDING AUTHOR
Khairul Nizam Abdul Maulud   

Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering & Built Environment, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia
 
 
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ABSTRACT
The precise determination of trace element concentrations in the soil of the Al-Qadisiyah Governorate is part of the Iraqi sedimentary plain is required to eliminate high levels of harmful elements in polluted soils. The soil samples were collected from 28 representative profiles in Al-Shamiyah city. The soil profiles were defined using virtual characterization. In this study, I-geo was used to analyze soil pollution. The goals and destinations of the I-geo readings Contamination of Cd, Ni, Pb, and Zn in various soil strata. I-geo (Cd) generally range from 0.58 to 4.71, I-geo (Ni) range from 0.09 to 4.07, I-geo (Pb) ranged range from 0.07 to 2.79, and I-geo (Zn) ranges from zero to 2.79, depicting the local differences in I-geo for pollutants in the research area. Suggesting that the research area had been heavily polluted from Cd in the varied layers of the soils. On the maps pertaining to Zn and Pb, the majority of the research area was primarily covered in the orange and blue hues, suggesting that a significant portion of the research area was likely to be severely polluted from Cd and Ni. Moreover, the land cover layouts of Ni in layers of the soils revealed concentrations rising towards to the western sections, which could be attributed to proximity to a major drain. The results display that its I-geo value of four trace metals generally range from non-pollute to significantly heavily polluted. The I-geo data show significant differences in levels of the Ni, Cd, Zn, and Pb in different soils strata. Including these findings, the soil in Al-Shamiya, Al-Qadisiyah Governorate contains high levels of Cd, Ni, Pb, and Zn. Industries of fossil fuel combustion, as well as other man-made wastes include agricultural nutrients, soil conditioners, and sludge, particularly, ammonium phosphate pollution in soils. The pollutant load index (PLI) reveals a baseline level of contamination in 28 locations, as well as a decline in soil quality in four others. Finally, assessing the danger of contamination for trace metals utilizing the I-geo and PLI by using the GIS method and multimodal models is a helpful and relevant strategy.