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Microplastics Contamination in the Aquatic Environment of Indonesia: A Comprehensive Review
 
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1
Department of Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Singaperbangsa Karawang, Teluk Jambe Timur, Karawang 41361, Indonesia
2
Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Health Science, University of Singaperbangsa Karawang, Teluk Jambe Timur, Karawang 41361, Indonesia
3
Department of Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Environment and Geoscience, Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember, Surabaya 60111, Indonesia
CORRESPONDING AUTHOR
Gina Lova Sari   

Department of Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Singaperbangsa Karawang, Teluk Jambe Timur, Karawang 41361, Indonesia
 
 
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ABSTRACT
The abundance of microplastics (MP) in the aquatic environment is increasingly disturbing for maritime countries, especially Indonesia, because it has the potential to threaten the health and sustainability of aquatic ecosystems. This review summarized and discussed the distribution of MP abundance in Indonesian aquatic ecosystems which concluded that rivers, bays and estuaries, beaches, seas, and even fish and shellfish have been contaminated. The highest contamination of MP was found in the waters of Jakarta, West Java, and East Java, which are densely populated areas. The potential threat of exposure and accumulation of MP to human health was also discussed. However, differences in the methods and units of measurement for MP as well as limited information regarding the interaction of MP with human organ functions are weaknesses in this review. The future research on the relationship between food and feeding habits of the community around contaminated waters with the accumulation of MP in the human body is needed to identify the prevention and treatment strategies.