Potential of Irrigation and Biochar on Reduction Methane Emission and Leaching Nitrate into Groundwater
Thuyloi University, 175 Tay Son, Dong Da, Hanoi, Vietnam
University of Fire Prevention and Fighting, 243 Khuat Duy Tien str. Thanh Xuan, Ha Noi, Vietnam
Vietnam National University of Agriculture, Trau Quy town, Gia Lam district, Hanoi, Vietnam.
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Phuong Thi Lan Dinh   

Thuyloi University, 175 Tay Son, Dong Da, Hanoi, Vietnam
J. Ecol. Eng. 2024; 25(6):350-367
Agricultural by-products such as rice husks are very popular in Vietnam, which are often burned in the fields, causing an increase in dust smoke and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. To study the effects of different irrigation methods, quality of irrigation water and additive biochar from rice husk (BFRH) on leaching nitrate from paddy fields into shallow groundwater and CH4 emissions, we investigated a two-season experiment (2021-2023) under two irrigation methods: water-saving irrigation and flood irrigation with 120 kg N/ha. The results illustrated that seasonal CH4 emissions and leaching nitrate were affected by irrigation practices and significantly correlated with the quality of irrigation and the amount of BFRH added. To compare of control, the flood irrigation water increased the leaching of GHG and NO3- into shallow groundwater from 27.3-32.4% and 16.4 - 31.25%, respectively. Meanwhile, the saving water irrigation reduced CH4 and leaching of NO3- into shallow groundwater from 13.3-17.8% and 15.63 - 18.9%, respectively. Applying biochar with controlling fertilizer reduces CH4 and NO3- content in surface field water, contributing to the decreased leaching of NO3- into groundwater. Reducing 20% fertilizer rate of N (96 kg N/ha) with application biochar of 5% without a change in yield reduces NO3- content into shallow groundwater from 13.7 – 14.3%. We conclude that water-saving irrigation combined with biochar from rice husk incorporation simultaneously mitigates CH4 emissions, improves yield, and reduces leaching nitrate into groundwater, making it a suitable environment-friendly nitrogen management practice for sustainable farming in northern Vietnam.
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