Pro-Environmental and Health-Promoting Grounds for Restitution of Flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) Cultivation
 
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1
Department of Technology in Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Civil Engineering and Environmental Sciences, Bialystok University of Technology, ul. Wiejska 45E, 15-351 Białystok, Poland
2
Department of the Basis of Agriculture and Waste Management, Environmental Protection and Management, Institute of Agricultural Sciences, College of Natural Sciences, University of Rzeszow, Poland
CORRESPONDING AUTHOR
Aleksander Kiryluk   

Bialystok Technical University
Publication date: 2020-10-01
 
J. Ecol. Eng. 2020; 21(7):99–107
 
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ABSTRACT
The current state of the world's ecosystems requires many measures to restore opportunities, if not for their reconstruction, then to stop the rate of biodiversity loss. One of the plane where this should happen is industrial agriculture. In order to diversify the large-scale monoculture crops dominated by cereals and fodder crops, science and practice draws attention to the need to introduce plants of smaller or marginal significance into cultivation. Flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) is a species with special properties and great utility from ancient times to the present. Currently, Canada is the largest producer of flax in the world, and France, Belgium and the Netherlands in Europe. The aim of the work is to assess the state of its cultivation (area and volume of production) and determine the possibilities of restitution of this species in Poland. The analysis of available materials indicates that the largest areas of flax cultivation occurred in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, when flax competed with cotton as a raw material for the production of textile products. In the interwar period, Poland had a well-developed textile industry for flax processing. Large quantities of high-quality linseed oil were also produced. In the 1990s, the production of flax fell to several hundred hectares, and after Poland's accession to the EU, the area of cultivation and production of oil flax increased. Bearing in mind the pro-environmental qualities of flax and linseed fabrics and oil, there is a need to popularize this species and increase the cultivation area, for which climatic and soil conditions in moderate climate are very favorable.