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Removal of Nitramine Explosives in Aqueous Solution by UV-Mediated Advanced Oxidation Process in Near-Neutral Conditions
Do Ngoc Khue 1  
,   Vu Quang Bach 2,   Nguyen Thanh Binh 3,   Do Binh Minh 1,   Pham Thi Nam 4,   Vu Duc Loi 5,   Hoa Thanh Nguyen 6  
 
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1
Institute of New Technology, Academy of Military Science and Technology, 17 Hoang Sam str., Ha Noi, Viet Nam
2
Military Industrial College, 22/103 Ly Son str, Ngoc Thuy, Long Bien, Ha Noi, Viet Nam
3
College of Chemical Defense Officer/Chemical Corps; Tan Phu, Son Tay Dictrict, Ha Noi, Viet Nam
4
Institute for Tropical Technology, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, 18 Hoang Quoc Viet str., Ha Noi, Viet Nam
5
Institute of Chemistry, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, 18 Hoang Quoc Viet str., Ha Noi, Viet Nam
6
Thuyloi University, 175 Tay Son str., Dong Da, Ha Noi, Viet Nam
CORRESPONDING AUTHOR
Hoa Thanh Nguyen   

Thuyloi University, 175 Tay Son str., Dong Da, Ha Noi, Viet Nam
Publication date: 2021-06-06
 
J. Ecol. Eng. 2021; 22(6):232–243
 
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ABSTRACT
Explosive compounds are hazardous to the environment, posing a serious risk to human and animal health and the ecosystem. The primary goal of research was to compare the efficiency of UV/H2O2, photo-Fenton, electro (EO)/UV/H2O2 processes at near-neutral pH (pH=6) on the degradation of nitramine explosives (NAs), such as hexogen (RDX), octogen (HMX), and tetryl (TET), in an aqueous solution. The effect of operational conditions, likely pH of the solution, initial H2O2 concentration, initial Fe2+ concentration, and solution temperature, was observed. The removal kinetics fit with first-order kinetics and were in the order: photo-Fenton >EO/UV/H2O2 > UV/H2O2. The results showed higher rate constant values for TET, RDX and HMX removal by UV/H2O2 (k = 0.07778, 0.03791 and 0.03786 min-1), EO/UV/H2O2 (k = 0.16599, 0.1475 and 0.08674 min-1) and photo-Fenton (k = 0.18018, 0.1501 and 0.09336 min-1) processes. Furthermore, TET, RDX and HMX were mineralized at 59.7%, 45.1%, and 25.1 %, respectively, under optimum conditions after 60 min of the photo-Fenton process. From the economic perspective, photo-Fenton only requires 2.132–4.113 kWh m-3 to completely reduce NAs. Finally, acute toxicity towards Vibrio fischeri was defeated after usage of near-neutral photo-Fenton. Thus, photo-Fenton at circum-neutral is promising for low-cost, eco-friendly and efficient processes for treating nitramine explosives in aqueous solutions.