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Synthesis and Characterization of xerogel Derived from Palm Kernel Shell Biochar and Comparison with Commercial Activated Carbon
 
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1
School of Chemical Engineering, College of Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Shah Alam, Selangor, 40450, Malaysia
 
2
Faculty of Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor, Malaysia
 
3
Department of Biochemical Engineering, Al-Khwarizmi College of Engineering, University of Baghdad
 
4
Directorate of Climate Change Ministry of Environment, Iraq
 
5
Renewable Energy Research Unit, Alhawija Institute, Northern Technical University Iraq
 
These authors had equal contribution to this work
 
 
Corresponding author
Sami D. Salman   

Department of Biochemical Engineering, Al-Khwarizmi College of Engineering, University of Baghdad
 
 
 
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ABSTRACT
Biomass is an inexpensive adsorbent that has attracted considerable interest. The sol-gel process produced xerogel from Palm kernel shell biochar (PKSB). This study aims to synthesize and characterize palm kernel shell biochar xerogel (PKSBX) and compare it with commercial (AC). The synthesized xerogel, raw material, and AC were characterized using different characterization, including Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET), and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The FTIR spectrum analysis showed a wide range of bonds and confirmed the presence of C=C alkenes, amines N-H, and aromatic C-H functional groups. TGA analysis of samples was conducted at 10 ℃/min. The sample's thermal degradation undergoes several setups of loss mass. The degrades occurred between 50- 200 ℃ first setups, second between 200- 700℃, and third setups between 950- 1000 ℃. The surface morphological structure of each sample has been defined and compared using SEM data, which is further confirmed by XRD data. Based on the characterization findings, it can be determined that the xerogel obtained from the synthesis process using PKSB as the raw material exhibits favorable characteristics for its potential usage as an adsorbent.
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