The Morphological and Physiological Appearance of Two Vegetable Plants Due to Lead Exposure
More details
Hide details
Faculty of Agriculture, University of Islam Malang, MT. Haryono Street No. 193, Malang, East Java, Indonesia
Mahayu Woro Lestari   

Faculty of Agriculture, University of Islam Malang, MT. Haryono Street No. 193, Malang, East Java, Indonesia
Publication date: 2022-06-01
J. Ecol. Eng. 2022; 23(6):213–222
This research aims to determine the effect of different concentrations of Pb on the morphology of kale and spinach plants. The process involved planting kale and spinach seeds in tubs and transferring them to polybags with planting media in the form of soil and sand at a ratio of 4:1 after having strong roots. It is important to note that the media were analyzed to ensure the Pb content in the soil was below the threshold before planting. The Pb was later provided 1 week before planting in the form of PbNO3 in the media at a dose of 1 and 2g/polybag and mixed effectively to ensure even distribution while the sample used as the control was not given any Pb. The transplanting process was conducted after the plants were 18 days old in the nursery and the initial observations at 9 DAT showed that the kale leaves were darker with a score of 3 than spinach with a score of 1 but the spinach leaves became darker in color with score 3 as the age of the plants increased. Moreover, the kale changed to a lighter color with a score of 2 from the 9th day of observation after transplanting while spinach requires 15 DAT to become score 2 until the end of the observation. It should be pointed out that both plants showed morphological changes due to the existence of the Pb but their base leaves did not reflect any effect. The kale leaf tip became blunt while the spinach leaf tip was not affected and both plants were discovered to have longer roots and more root hairs in the control compared to the treatments. Furthermore, the total chlorophyll of spinach in the control was higher than kale but observed to reduce as the concentration of Pb increased in the treatments. The morphology and physiology of spinach and kale plants changed due to Pb exposure with the spinach discovered to be more sensitive as indicated by more visible morphological damage to its leaves at the end of the observation. It is possible to use the morphology of spinach and kale to detect a Pb-contaminated land.