The Problem of Health Risk Resulting from the Presence of Pharmaceuticals in Water Used for Drinking Purposes: A Review
Sądeckie Wodociągi Spółka z o.o. ul. Wincentego Pola 22 33-300 Nowy Sącz, Poland
Department of Environmental Protection, Faculty of Geology, Geophysics and Environmental Protection, AGH University of Krakow, ul. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Krakow, Poland
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Ewa Wysowska   

Sądeckie Wodociągi Spółka z o.o. ul. Wincentego Pola 22 33-300 Nowy Sącz, Poland
J. Ecol. Eng. 2024; 25(5):244-256
The article addresses the problem of the presence of selected pharmaceuticals in waters by determining the state of scientific knowledge. The sources of drug residues in the aquatic environment were characterized and the most important information was collected on the toxicity measures of the most commonly used drugs, including NLPZ: (1) non-steroidal analgesics and antipyretics (diclofenac, ibuprofen, phenazone, acetaminophen, propyphenazone, indomethacin, ketoprofen, pentoxifylline, and phenacetin), (2) pharmaceuticals used to reduce blood lipid levels (bezafibrate, fenofibrate, gemfibrozil), (3) drugs used in cardiac conditions, in particular those used to lower blood pressure and treat arrhythmia (atenolol, sotalol, metoprolol), (4) antibiotics (trimethoprim, clarithromycin, amoxicillin, sulfamethoxazole, piperacillin, erythromycin, sulfadimidine, dehydrate-erythromycin, 4N-Acetylsulfamethoxazol), (5 )drugs used to treat rheumatoid arthritis (naproxen, fenoprofen), and (6) anticonvulsants, drugs used in neuropathic disorders and tranquilisers (carbamazepine, diazepam, primidone, oxazepam, temazepam). The authors reviewed research papers dealing with the indicated issue, taking into account: (1) research on the presence of pharmaceuticals in water, (2) studies on the health and environmental risk of drinking water for the presence of drug residues and their mixtures, (3) research on the effectiveness of water treatment in terms of pharmaceuticals. Gaps in scientific knowledge have been demonstrated, which are a hint for the directions of future research work.
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