Treatment Ability and Community Responses of Candung as an Appropriate Technology to Maintain Irrigation Water Quality
Universitas Mahasaraswati Denpasar, Jalan Kamboja No. 11A, Denpasar, Bali, Indonesia 80233
Faculty of Agriculture and Business, Universitas Mahasaraswati Denpasar, Jl. Kamboja No.11 A, Dangin Puri Kangin, Kec. Denpasar Utara, Kota Denpasar, Bali 80236, Indonesia
Department of Ecology and Environment, Abbes Laghrour University Khenchela, BP 1252 Road of Batna Khenchela 40004, Algeria
Autor do korespondencji
I Ketut Sumantra   

Universitas Mahasaraswati Denpasar, Jalan Kamboja No. 11A, Denpasar, Bali, Indonesia 80233
J. Ecol. Eng. 2023; 24(6):348–365
With the burgeoning population, the community activities, such as laundering, washing, or even bathing, have expanded along the irrigation canal. Consequently, some chemicals from those activities are released and pollute the water body. Besides, the discharge of wastewater into the irrigation system is also an issue of public health concern, because it creates an environment conducive to the reproduction of any pathogenic agent. Using candung as constructed wetlands (CW)-like to treat the irrigation water in rice paddies would be an interesting tool for removing pollutants from the irrigation water. Candung, as a locally used CW in Bali Island, has been applied in the rice field long time ago. The present study aimed to examine candung as a local attached CW or treating irrigation water and analyse the community awareness regarding the candung application. The result showed a positive effect of candung in maintaining the water quality parameters, such as TSS, BOD, COD, and nutrients with certain aquatic plants (Nelumbo nucifera, Nymphaea tetragona, and Pistia stratiotes). The knowledge, behaviour, and action of the local subak community were still limited, whereas they had positive perceptions and responses about candungthe potential of candung as an agrotourism attraction in the village as well