Water Quality Impact Christmas Tree Worms (Spirobranchus spp.) Distribution and Community Structure on Hard Corals At Sempu Island Nature Reserve, Malang, Indonesia
Department of Marine Sciences, Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Sciences, Brawijaya University, Jl. Veteran, Malang, 65145, Indonesia
Coastal Resilience and Climate Change Adaptation Research Group, Brawijaya University, Jl. Veteran, Ketawanggede, Kec. Lowokwaru, Kota Malang, 65145, Indonesia
Doctoral Program of Environmental Studies, Brawijaya University Postgraduate School, Jl. MT. Haryono 169, Malang 65145, Indonesia
Master of Environmental Sciences, Graduate School of Universitas Gadjah Mada, Jl. Teknika Utara, Pogung, Sinduadi, Mlati, Sleman, Yogyakarta, 55284, Indonesia
Master in Environmental Management and Development, Brawijaya University Postgraduate School, Jl. MT Haryono 169, Malang, 65145, Indonesia
Institute of Marine Biology, National Taiwan Ocean University, No.2, Beining Rd., Jhongjheng District, Keelung City 20224, Taiwan
Autor do korespondencji
Andik Isdianto   

Department of Marine Sciences, Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Sciences, Brawijaya University, Jl. Veteran, Malang, 65145, Indonesia
J. Ecol. Eng. 2024; 25(5):175-186
The Christmas Tree Worm (Spirobranchus sp.) is a biota that lives in association with hermatypic corals. This bioeroder damages the structural integrity of corals, making them susceptible to breakage. Therefore, further investigation is required to determine the distribution, diversity, uniformity, and predominance of CTW on hard corals in the Sempu Island Nature Reserve's waters. The method used is the belt transect method, which refers to the reef check. CTW species will be identified based on their operculum, and corals will be identified based on their growth form, genus, and species. The data gathered were processed, and the abundance value and ecological index were obtained. The CTW species found at the five stations were Spirobranchus gardineri, Spirobranchus cruciger, and Spirobranchus spp., associated with massive corals of the genus Porites and genus Goniastrea. Water quality factors such as currents, sedimentation, and nitrates affect CTW's presence. Medium-to-fast currents circulate around Sempu Island, where high sedimentation rates of 73.73 mg/cm2/day decrease light penetration into the waterways. Additionally, elevated nitrate levels contribute to the growth of CTW operculum-covering turf algae. CTW abundance values ranged from 0.018 to 0.084 individuals/m2, diversity index (H') ranged from 0.403 to 0.760 (low), and uniformity index (E) ranged from 0.582 to 0.966 (unstable to stable). The dominance index (C) values ranged from 0.513 to 0.705 (medium). Based on the index value, it was found that the CTW in Sempu Island was in the unstable category, so there was moderate dominance.
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