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Detection of Some Heavy Metals Used in the Surface Soil (Sediments) from Khirbet Al-Samra in Jordan
 
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1
Department of Allied Medical Sciences, Zarqa University College/ Al-Balqa Applied University, Al-Salt, 19117, Jordan
 
2
Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Agricultural Technology, Al-Balqa Applied University, Al-Salt 19117, Jordan
 
3
Department of Basic and applied Sciences, Faculty of Agricultural Technology, Al-Balqa Applied University, Al-Salt 19117, Jordan
 
 
Corresponding author
Ahmad Khalaf Alkhawaldeh   

Department of Allied Medical Sciences, Zarqa University College/ Al-Balqa Applied University, Al-Salt, 19117, Jordan
 
 
J. Ecol. Eng. 2024; 25(8)
 
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ABSTRACT
Al-Zarqa is facing difficulties with industry conversion and extensive urbanization. Spatial analysis was used to analyze the environmental quality of soil in the Al-Zarqa region in order to identify sources and estimate heavy metal concentrations, which aided in the assessment of soil quality and heavy metal pollution. The reason for the increase in heavy metal pollution in that region is increased urbanization, industrialization, traffic, oil refinery emissions, and a mix of anthropogenic sources. The primary goal of this study was to assess the environmental impact of heavy metal pollutants in the Al-Zarqa region. To assess pollution levels, the concentrations of Cu, Mn, Cd, and Pb were measured in surface soil (sediment) samples collected from Khirbet al-Samra. A total of sixteen samples were analyzed. The elevated levels of Cu and Cd are primarily attributed to various sources such as the weathering of nearby rock formations and the release of agricultural waste materials. An evaluation of sediment contamination was conducted using pollution indicators including Geo-accumulation Index (Igeo), Enrichment Factor (EF), and Pollution Load Index (PLI). Spatial distribution analysis was used to determine the distribution pattern of each metal. The results revealed that metal concentrations (Cu, Pb, and Mn) are higher, while Cd concentrations are lower than the maximum allowed limits. The results from the Enrichment Factor (EF) analysis indicated elevated concentrations of Cu and Cd in the sampled area. In terms of the Geo-accumulation Index (Igeo) analysis of Khirbet al-Samra sediments, it was found that the concentrations of Pb, Cu, and Mn are within safe levels and relatively unaffected by human activities, whereas the concentrations of Cd exceed the mean values, suggesting a higher level of contamination specifically for cadmium. The potential sources of heavy metals in the investigated area were identified using factor analysis, and the geographical distribution of heavy metals was shown using spatial distribution. The examination of correlation coefficients revealed diverse relationships between the different parameters, depending on the source of input for each metal.
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