Development of the Horizontal Flow Wetland Using Palm Waste Biochar for Greywater Reclamation
Department of Ecology, College of Science, University of Basrah, P.O. Box 49, Basrah City, Iraq
Department of Civil Engineering, College of Engineering, Univesity of Basrah, P.O. Box 49, Basrah, Iraq
Autor do korespondencji
Dina A. Yaseen   

Department of civil Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Basrah, Basra city, Iraq.
J. Ecol. Eng. 2023; 24(8):236–249
Wetlands technology is one of the main sustainable and successful treatment processes. Similarly, biochar is an organic, effective, and low-cost adsorbent material used for the treatment of diverse wastewaters. The combination between wetland system and biochar, as a media, can greatly enhance the treatment efficiency. The aim of this study is to assess the performance of two horizontal flow constructed wetlands planted with Bacopa monnieri L. for the treatment of household greywater. The objectives were to investigate the raw and treated greywater characteristics, compare the removal efficiency of pollutants by using gravel bed, and biochar-gravel bed, monitor the growth and survival of the plants. Findings indicated that the simulated treatment systems were able to improve all the greywater characteristics. The wetland with biochar enhanced the removal efficiency of biological oxygen demand (BOD5), ammonia (NH3), and other parameters compared with the wetland with gravels alone.