Lithic Technology, and Origin of the Stone Raw Material Guenfouda Cave (Jerada Province, Eastern Morocco)
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Faculté des Sciences, Département de Géologie, Université Mohamed Premier, Oujda, Marocco
Faculté de Philosophie et des Lettres, Département d'Histoire, Géographie et Philosophie, Université Cadis, Espagne
Publication date: 2021-09-01
Corresponding author
Mohamed Souhir   

Université Mohamed Premier, Faculté des Sciences, Département de Géologie, Oujda, Morocco
J. Ecol. Eng. 2021; 22(8):258-277
Guenfouda cave is located 30 km south of the city of Oujda in the Jbel Metssila belonging to the Oujda Mountains. It was recognized as a site of archaeological interest in 2003. Excavations are scheduled every year, and important archaeological material (lithic, faunal and human) has been brought to light. A first study on the lithic industry was carried out by S. Almisas and M. Souhir (2018) under the title of "New studies on the lithic industry of the Neolithic deposits of the Oujda Mountains. Raw material and technology” (Reg.03“Upper Pleistocene and Holocene cognitive complexity & archaeogenetics in North Africa ”15th PANAF Conférence, Rabat 2018). The study is based on technological techniques, the typology of cut products and also on the origin of the raw material used. The lithic industry is abundant, well preserved in all levels and phases of the operating chain are present, indicating debitage in situ in the cave. The artefacts, are brought back to the Neolithic for the upper levels, then to the final Upper Paleolithic (or Epipaleolithic) for the lower levels, marked by a change in culture with the appearance of back-to-body lamellae. The first analyzes of the raw material used by prehistoric man in this cave, in particular the flint, generally comes from the Swimina area, located to the south of the Oued El Hay basin (Ain Béni Mathar). The limestones come from the surroundings of the mountains of 'Oujda, plains and wadis. As for the basalt, it comes from an ancient Quaternary volcano located near the cave at the top of Jebel Metssila. For quartzites, phtanites, silicified green schist and tuffite, they come from the Paleozoic buttonholes of Glib Naam and jbel boussofane (Province of Jerada). Given the above information, it appears that the man from Guenfouda may have used various rocks for the manufacture of tools, and would have traveled distances of up to 60 km in radius to stock up on raw material, especially flint. Key words: Guenfouda, Prehistoric cave, Oujda mountains, Eastern Morocco, Neolithic, Upper Paleolithic, raw material origin.
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