Regenerating Etching Solutions for Circuit Boards while Extracting Copper
Khmelnytskyi National University, Khmelnytskyi, Instytutska st. 11, 29015, Ukraine
Prydniprovska State Academy of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Dnipro, Architect Oleg Petrov st., 24a, 49600, Ukraine
University of Presov, Presov, 080 01, Slovakia
Higher educational institution “Podillia State University”, Kamianets-Podilskyi, Shevchenka st, 13, 32316, Ukraine
Kamianets-Podilskyi Ivan Ohiienko National University, Kamianets-Podilskyi, Ogienka st., 61, 32301, Ukraine
Lviv Polytechnic National University, Lviv, 12, St. Bandera St., 79013, Ukraine
Autor do korespondencji
Elvira Dzhumelia   

Lviv Polytechnic National University, Lviv, 12, St. Bandera St., 79013, Ukraine
J. Ecol. Eng. 2024; 25(5):257-267
The examination of sludge derived from electroplating manufacturing, printed circuit board production, and paste-like residue from sludge collectors uncover elevated levels of chromium, nickel, copper, cadmium, and various metals. The considerable saturation of water in the region and diverse soil compositions complicate the identification of suitable waste disposal sites, specifically for electroplating byproducts, limiting available spaces and fostering conditions conducive to soil and water contamination by heavy metal ions. The retention of used etching solutions within industrial facilities contributes to environmental pollution, necessitating substantial expenditures for proper disposal at manufacturing sites. Industrial waste, notably from processes such as printed circuit board etching, represents a significant threat to water quality, encompassing various essential technological processes for the production of diverse electronic equipment serving both civilian and military purposes. This article aims to present research outcomes and conducted experiments geared towards developing eco-friendly equipment. Also, the research delves into specific procedures for obtaining concentrated copper precipitates during the regeneration of etching solutions, with the extraction process reducing the generation of waste in the form of a paste-like structure saturated with water on industrial premises. The treatment of wastewater from etching printed circuit boards can be achieved by establishing a closed production cycle for board manufacturing and extracting copper for industrial applications. Finally, the research strives to design equipment for regenerating used solutions with metal extraction in a form suitable for remelting, contributing as an element to environmental conservation. The results facilitate the establishment of a printed circuit board etching line that incorporates the reuse of spent etching solutions in the manufacturing process. For solution regeneration, it is recommended to utilize a regenerator with a titanium VT1-0 cathode. The outcomes of individual tests provide conditions for regenerating spent etching solutions and utilizing the extracted copper in the national economy.
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