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Comparison of Untreated, Lime-Stabilized and Composted Wastewater Sludges from a Pulp, Board and Paper Mill Integrate as a Fertilizer Product
Juha Oksanen 1  
,   Risto Pöykiö 2  
,   Olli Dahl 3  
 
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1
Stora Enso Oyj, Imatra Research Centre. Tornansaarenraitti 48, FI-55800 Imatra, Finland
2
City of Kemi, Department of Environmental Protection. Valtakatu 26, FI-94100 Kemi, Finland
3
Aalto University, School of Chemical Technology, Department of Bioproducts and Biosystems. PO Box 16300 FI-00076 Aalto, Finland
CORRESPONDING AUTHOR
Juha Oksanen   

Stora Enso Oyj, Imatra Research Centre. Tornansaarenraitti 48, FI-55800 Imatra, Finland
Publication date: 2021-05-01
 
J. Ecol. Eng. 2021; 22(5):47–58
 
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ABSTRACT
In this study, the physical and chemical properties of untreated, lime-stabilized and composted wastewater sludges from a Finnish pulp, board and paper mill integrate were compared in order to assess their fertilizer properties based on the requirement of the Finnish Fertilizer Product Decree. Furthermore, the extraction properties of heavy metals in sludges were assessed by the three-stage sequential extraction procedure of the Community Bureau of Reference (BCR) and the solubility indexes for heavy metals were calculated in order to evaluate the release potential of elements from the sample (sludge) matrix. The results of this study indicated that the total heavy metal (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Zn) concentrations in all sludges were lower than the statutory Finnish limit values for fertilizer products. However, the untreated sludge required either lime-stabilization or composting in order to fulfil the Finnish maximum concentrations of pathogens (coliforms and Escherichia coli) for fertilizer products.